Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO): Pioneering Space Exploration in India

Introduction to ISRO

  • Full Name: Indian Space Research Organisation
  • Abbreviation: ISRO
  • Established: August 15, 1969
  • Founder: Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
  • Parent Organisation: Department of Space (DoS), Government of India

Foundation and History

  • Predecessor: Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR), established in 1962
  • Initial Motivation: To harness space technology for national development
  • Key Milestone: Transition from INCOSPAR to ISRO in 1969

Headquarters and Branches

  • Headquarters: Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Regional Centers and Facilities:
    • Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC): Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
    • Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC): Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, and Bengaluru, Karnataka
    • U R Rao Satellite Centre (URSC): Bengaluru, Karnataka
    • Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC-SHAR): Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh
    • Space Applications Centre (SAC): Ahmedabad, Gujarat
    • Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU): Ahmedabad, Gujarat
    • Master Control Facility (MCF): Hassan, Karnataka, and Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
    • Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN): Byalalu, Karnataka
Modern architecture of the ISRO building
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)


  • Current Chairman: S. Somanath (as of 2024)
  • Notable Past Chairmen:
    • Dr. Vikram Sarabhai
    • Prof. Satish Dhawan
    • Dr. K. Kasturirangan
    • Dr. A.S. Kiran Kumar
    • Dr. K. Sivan

Objectives and Vision

  • Primary Objectives:
    • Develop space technology and its applications for national tasks.
    • Achieve self-reliance in space technology.
    • Promote research and development in space sciences.
  • Vision: Harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration.

Key Missions and Projects

  • Satellite Launch Vehicles:
    • SLV: Satellite Launch Vehicle
    • ASLV: Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle
    • PSLV: Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
    • GSLV: Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
    • GSLV Mk III: Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III
  • Satellite Missions:
    • NSAT Series: Indian National Satellite System
    • GSAT Series: Geostationary Satellites
    • IRS Series: Indian Remote Sensing Satellites
    • NavIC: Navigation with Indian Constellation
    • Cartosat Series: High-resolution Earth observation satellites
  • Exploration Missions:
    • Chandrayaan-1: India’s first lunar probe
    • Chandrayaan-2: Second lunar exploration mission
    • Mangalyaan (Mars Orbiter Mission): First interplanetary mission to Mars
    • Chandrayaan-3: Upcoming lunar mission
    • Gaganyaan: Manned space mission project
    • Aditya-L1: Solar observation mission

Major Achievements

PSLV rocket launching into space
The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) taking off
  • First Indian Satellite: Aryabhata, launched in 1975
  • First Indigenous Satellite Launch: SLV-3, launched in 1980
  • Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan): First Asian nation to reach Mars orbit, and the fourth globally
  • GSAT-11: India’s heaviest communication satellite
  • PSLV: Known for its versatility and reliability, achieving numerous successful launches
  • Chandrayaan-1: Confirmed the presence of water molecules on the Moon
ISRO’s Mangalyaan spacecraft orbiting Mars
The Mars Orbiter Mission, also known as Mangalyaan, successfully orbiting Mars

Future Prospects and Goals

  • Upcoming Missions:
    • Chandrayaan-3: Further lunar exploration
    • Gaganyaan: Human spaceflight mission
    • Aditya-L1: Solar observation mission
    • Mangalyaan-2: Follow-up mission to Mars
  • Long-term Goals:
    • Expand space exploration to include missions to other planets and asteroids
    • Develop advanced satellite technologies for better communication and earth observation
    • Strengthen international collaborations and partnerships in space research


ISRO has been a cornerstone in India’s scientific and technological advancements, propelling the nation into the global space arena. With a vision to harness space technology for national development, ISRO continues to push the boundaries of space exploration and research, making significant contributions to humanity’s understanding of the universe.

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